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Corresponding Author:
Thobekile Qabhobho, Department of Economics and Economic History, Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, Nelson Mandela University, Gqeberha, South Africa

Nolontu Stella Dyubhele, Department of Economics and Economic History, Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, Nelson Mandela University, Gqeberha, South Africa
Masedi Motswapong, Department of Economics and Economic History, Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, Nelson Mandela University, Gqeberha, South Africa

Botswana's Gender Wage Differences: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Quantile Regression Analysis

January 12, 2024
JEL classification: J01; J08; J31; J71
Keywords: Wages; Gender; Inequality; Education; Employment


The wage gap between men and women in Botswana is examined in this paper. The paper employs both the unconditional decomposition technique and the quantile regression model. The research shows that returns to schooling differ significantly between males and females using quantile regression models. As one’s education level rises, both private returns to education tend to increase. Applying the decomposition analysis also reveals that the pay gap between men and women widens as levels rise along the salary distribution. The data do not support the “sticky floor” effect, while the “glass ceiling” effect suggests that many women may not be in leadership positions. The study’s policy implications include the need to continue investing in human capital development and draw men into heavily feminised industries.

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Institute for International Economics
of the Genoa Chamber of Commerce

Istituto di Economia Internazionale
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