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Corresponding Author:
Gianluca Cerruti, Department of Economics and Business, University of Genova, Italy

Simone Robbiano, Department of Science and Technological Innovation, University of Eastern Piedmont, Italy

Presence of Migrants and Voting Behavior in Europe: An Overview of the Empirical Literature

May 30, 2023
JEL classification: Z1; J15; D72
Keywords: Voting Behavior; Immigration; Political backlash; Culture; Economics


In this study, we conduct a survey of the empirical literature that has investigated the relationship between the presence of migrants and voting behavior. Our focus is primarily on European countries, although we also present analyses related to some countries on the outskirts of Europe. The papers are grouped by individual country or group of countries, and predominantly employ counterfactual impact evaluation methods, which allow for the study of causal evidence rather than mere correlations. While the majority of the contributions are written by economists, there are also contributions from social psychologists and political scientists, providing an as comprehensive as possible view on the topic.

The findings of this literature reveal a heterogeneous and intricate relationship, influenced by several factors such as economic conditions, cultural dynamics, and social aspects. While numerous studies demonstrate the existence of certain patterns, one prominent example being the nexus between immigrant presence and political backlash, the complexity and variation across different countries underscore the multifaceted nature of this phenomenon.

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Institute for International Economics
of the Genoa Chamber of Commerce

Istituto di Economia Internazionale
Camera di Commercio di Genova
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